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The hadith can be defined accordingly as that which is transmitted and taught from the Prophet by those who, in virtue of this activity, represent his authority after his death and who benefit from divine support. Hadith transmission then is a way of conserving the prophetic authority present in his community after his death. As authority is a relational category and implies its recognition by somebody, 19 it is necessary to ask what is recognized, according to the author, when one recognizes the authority of hadith as source of Islamic knowledge?

Why and in virtue of what is authority attributed to hadith? This consideration informs the hypothesis of this study: to regard the authority of the hadith as being founded on a purely methodological postulate leads to a reductionist and inadequate understanding of hadith transmission and scholarship in pre-modern Sunni Islam.

It seeks to establish the epistemological authority of hadith as a source, too. However, the author presents no proof of the epistemological superiority of the hadith transmission over other sources of religious knowledge besides the Quran of course as the person of the Prophet. This implies that no guarantee other than the one constituted by the credibility of the person of the Prophet himself is needed.

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The guarantee and certitude, which are given with the recognition of his prophetic authority, are considered sufficient. The Prophet is represented as the truthful witness of revelation, and as its content, at the same time. In this way, he becomes the sole criteria by which the hadith and its authority are to be evaluated and determined. The decision whether a tradition is to be accepted as a reliable representation of the prophetic teaching remains ultimately a theological one, that is a decision based on principles established by revelation.

Dogmatics precedes hadith transmission and evaluation, and it constitutes the framework in which it ought to be practiced. Human activity and engagement is required and, unlike with the Quran, there is, at least in theory, the possibility of failure and doubt. Whereas the word of God is preserved directly by God himself, the teaching of the Prophet, a human being, is preserved by human effort. The hadith is presented as the conclusive and necessary phase of a three-layered process consisting of the communication of prophetic revelation: Firstly, there is the fact of divine revelation itself, secondly the event of the prophetic words, acts, conduct, etc.

Following this vision, it is only in virtue of the hadith that revelation, at least in its prophetic aspect, becomes knowable and accessible as a source of knowledge beyond and after the historical existence of the Prophet. Accordingly, the hadith tradition is not to be considered as the fact of a later development which appeared as a solution to a contingent historical challenge, i.

As a consequence, hadith transmission is understood to be the conclusion and continuation of revelation. Revelation and hadith transmission cannot be separated, there is a necessary continuity between the two.

The Origins of Islamic Science

They represent two necessary elements of the same process, the communication and actualisation 32 of revelation to mankind. He specifies two types of procedures which make possible the access to this second modality of revelation. Here we have in fact a process of reconnection to the source from which revelation is received, namely the Prophet himself. Reconnection and knowledge are then the two interrelated processes required in order to establish the access to this source of revealed religion which is the prophetic revelation in form of his teaching and practice.

Establishing the connection to the Prophet and thereby assuring the continuity of transmission 35 yields knowledge of the prophetic revelation and knowledge of the prophetic revelation means establishing a connection to the Prophet. Both facts are not to be separated, they are interdependent. It involves first of all a process of reconnection which makes possible the acquisition of this knowledge of prophetic origin and nature. The hadith is defined in these terms. This interpretation seems to be confirmed by the rest of the work which in fact seeks to expound how this can be achieved.

By highlighting the necessity of a human effort for the preservation of prophetic revelation, he underlines the responsibility of the Muslim community and of its elite to engage in this effort. In the discourse of hadith scholarship, these are classically identified as the Hanafites, 42 but one may ask whether the author means those scholars amongst his own Maliki tradition who do not accept the epistemological authority of hadith preferring to confide themselves exclusively to the opinions of the great Maliki authorities.

This may indicate that his purpose here was really to denounce the explicit and systematic criticism of hadith transmission and the questioning of its authority on which the theological positions of these groups were based.

Muhammad in Mecca - Wikipedia

They represent the classical discourse of hadith scholarship legitimizing their own discipline. They present the activity of the hadith scholars described above as being willed and preannounced by the Prophet Muhammad during his lifetime. In this way, the activity of the hadith scholars appears as the implementation of this prophetic assignment and is charged with prophetic authority.

Their activity is thus portrayed as being particularly significant in view of the guidance of the Muslim community. Your eyes will not go blind, your feet will not slip away and your hands will not become short as long as you take hold of these two! The transmission of hadith is presented as the scale or criterion on which the prophetic substance of Muslim theologies and normative claims is measured and critically verified. In this way he undermines the necessity of hadith transmission not only from an epistemological and normative point of view, but also with regard to the destiny of the local Muslim community and the danger of its fragmentation.

This activity implies the existence of actors who perform it, the transmitters of hadith. This construction obviously represents a hermeneutical cycle: hadith prove that the authority of hadith is based on the prophetic revelation which is transmitted in the form of hadith. Again, the logical ground of this argumentation is to be sought in the authority that the Prophet himself represents. This prophetic authority guarantees the authority of the transmission of hadith which he initiated and whose bearers he invested.

The term of nobility or dignity raises the question of the quality or feature that ennobles the scholars of hadith and their science. We have seen that in both cases it is the act of transmitting the prophetic legacy which characterizes those who are in charge of these two crucial functions. It is a sacred activity the meaning and significance of which lie beyond the contingencies of human history and rationality.


As in other traditions, the transmitter of hadith benefits from a privileged relationship to the Prophet and is associated to him. The hadith and its transmission allow for the hadith scholars to enjoy a unique proximity to the Prophet Muhammad 72 which will become apparent in the hereafter.

In other words, the authority of the hadith as a reliable representation of the prophetic teaching and practice is not merely a question of the historical adequacy of its content. These questions probably arose of his own experience as a student and a teacher of hadith in al-Andalus and in Morocco. At the same time, the variety of the issues gives us a very precise picture about the discussions which shaped the practice of hadith transmission in the Islamic West during the early 12th century.

Labeed b. Once Labeed b. As for me, Allah has cured me. And I do not wish to stir evil among the people. After the Battle of Banu al-Mustaliq, Juwayria b. After the invaders laid a month-long siege to Madinah, wherein the Muslims were trapped and starving in their trenches, Allah destined that the confederates suspect one another and lose their zeal to continue the siege.

Give them shade and drink, so that they may cool off. Allah wished to terminate the widespread practice of adopting a child and failing to preserve their lineage. Muhammad , by other than his true paternal name. Ignore their harm and rely upon Allah. And sufficient is Allah as a Disposer of [your] affairs.

But the Quran instructed him to ignore them just as he did in Mecca. Mistah ra was one of those genuine believers who made the mistake of repeating this accusation. Do you not love that Allah should forgive you?

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We wish that You should forgive us. Anas b. Here, Allah establishes that He conferred two great favors upon the Muslims in this incident. And if war does erupt, by Allah, I do not see around you except an undignified bunch that would quickly flee and desert you.

Suhayl b. Even before demanding oppressive double standards in the treaty, Suhayl b. Ali b. When I came [home] and reached the door, I found it locked. She bathed herself, wore her garments, and quickly donned her headgear. Allah has responded to your supplication and guided the mother of Abu Hurayra. Instead, he supplicated for her. And thus here he is, sitting. O Muhammad, I swear by Allah that there was no face on the surface of the earth more disliked by me than yours, but now your face has become the most beloved face to me.

The Palermo Quran (ah 372/982–3 ce) and its Historical Context

By Allah, there was no religion more disliked by me than yours, but now it is the most beloved religion to me. By Allah, there was no town more disliked by me than your town, but now it is the most beloved town to me. Upon doing so, they boycotted Quraysh and refused to send any more grain—which Quraysh heavily depended on—their way.

Zayd ra , the son of Zayd b. This was the nickname of Khalid b. Waleed ra , the military genius who led the charge from behind at Uhud and massacred many of the Muslims. Supplicate to Allah that He may forgive me for these [crimes]. Indeed, I have passed through three phases [in my life]. Had I died in this state, I would have definitely been one of the residents of the Fire.

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I could not even stare at him directly out of reverence for him, and thus if I am asked to describe his features, I would not [be able to] describe them, for I have never eyed him fully. During the truce effected by the Treaty of al-Hudaybiya, Qutayla b.